The "singing" stroke. Also executed with the whole bow. The first contact must be delicate, and the single tones must follow each other without interruption. The player, drawing the bow quite parallel with the bridge, must press more and more as the point is reached. At the change of stroke, the wrist makes a slight move- ment, and the elbow assumes the same positions as in the previous grand detache bowing.
The detached hammered martellato bowing. This stroke is chiefly made at the point of the bow, which must not leave the string. With every note the stick is pressed or pushed by the thumb in the direction of the index finger, so that each tone is sharply cut out, but with a musical quality. The up strokes must receive a stronger pressure. This bowing can also be played at the nut end, and of course entirely with the wrist, which must be held lightly over the strings.
The elbow must be tolerably close to the body. The marteld bowing is an excellent preparatory study for staccato, which is really only one out of a number of marteld notes taken in one bow.
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Rendering: 4. Detached stroke with the fore-arm. As indicated by its name, is executed by the fore-arm and the wrist, and from the middle to the point of the bow. The upper arm must remain quite still. In this bowing no pause must be made between the notes, but they must be con- nected easily and agreeably together. The "skipping" stroke. This stroke is made at the middle of the bow, which must be lightly held be- tween the fingers and controlled by the wrist.
The stick is made to vibrate strongly, whereby the bow is caused to move up and down.
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Afterwards several notes may be taken on one string, then on the different strings. The rebounding or springing sautilld bow. This bowing differs from the foregoing in that the bow rebounds from the string after each note, and is then permitted to fall upon it again from above. In order to avoid too great dryness or hardness in the tone, the bow when falling on the string must be gently controlled.
Secondary bowings. The bound, or legato bowing.
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In this, as many notes are played at one stroke as may be found connected by the curved legato sign, or as necessitated by the phrasing. In passing from one string to another the wrist will require special watchfulness. The staccato stroke. This is, as already stated, a series of marteld notes taken in one bow, and must first be slowly practised with the up bow, to the point, and with a free wrist; the thumb only exerting a slight SECOND PART.
The staccato is also executed with the down bow, beginning near the nut. The springing staccato stroke. This consists of a series of rebounding notes "Primary bowing" No. The Tremolo is a succession of quick notes in very short strokes, and is executed with a loose wrist, the upper half of the bow lying upon the strings.
Only the upper half of the bow is used, and it is held lightly with the thumb and first two fingers. The Ponticello. This is executed with the bow lying quite close to the bridge, whereby the tone becomes somewhat nasal. When so produced by the whole string orchestra it often makes a fine effect.
Also with the bow resting on the string, but, unlike the foregoing bowing, it is executed just over the fingerboard. The notes so played yield a delicate flute-like quality of tone.
By arpeggi is meant the intervals of a chord in quick succession. These may be extended over three or four strings with the most varied bowings and rhythms.
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Par- ticular care must be taken to keep the wrist flexible. In example e the bow should be turned over so as to bring the hair almost flat upon the string, the hair preferably being rather tighter than usual. A slight "jerk" imparted to the down stroke sends the bow skipping over the strings of its own accord, on repeating the same arpeggio a few times.
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The Vibrato or close shake is a trembling similar to the vibrato of a vocalist. Em- ployed occasionally and with discretion it is of good effect. On the violin it is produced by setting the finger in tremulous movement upon the string, so that the pitch slightly rises and falls. Only the thumb and the finger in use must participate in the holding of the instrument.
There is no special sign for the close shake in general use, its employment depending upon the player's taste. Sometimes it is indicated by the word vibrato. The trill is an even alternation, usually quick, of two adjacent notes and may be executed on all the notes of the violin. The note played alternately with the principal note may be either a tone or a half tone distant. The trill is made both with and without a turn at the end. The turn is played in one bow with the shake, and at the same speed. In a series of shakes the turn is reserved for the last: Various kinds of turns: Final shake Usually the lower note of the two constituting the trill is taken first.
If it is intended that the upper note should begin the trill, it will be indicated by a small note before the principal note: i The upper note of the trill is always understood to be in accordance with the key. If it is meant to be raised or lowered a semitone, a sharp or flat will be placed over the shake. To execute the trill evenly, it must first be practised slowly. The finger making the trill must be lifted high, falling upon the string with firmness and elasticity, so that it is again lifted high.
The bow meantime passes lightly over the string. The trill is studied upon every note in both tones and semitones. The Mordent Pralltriller. The mordent is a single alternation of two notes preceding the principal note, and is generally indicated by the following sign: a Rendering. The double trill.
To this species of shake, difficult of execution, ap- plies all that has been said about the single trill. The player's chief care will consist in making both fingers fall quite simultaneously upon the strings. Scale practice demands diligent application. By its means we attain certainty of intonation, power and flexi- bility of tone, as well as familiarity with the various kinds of bowing. The scales are then practised with varying bowings and rhythms, legato and staccato, for example: i e f m.
T; g Fingering of the scales. To each note in the first position belongs its own finger, whether the note is raised or lowered a semitone, the same finger being used. As a rule in ascending passages the open string is used; downwards, the 4 th finger is preferred in its stead. If the notes of the open strings are raised a semitone, usually the 4 th finger plays it on the string below. In the chromatic scales , the i st , 2 nd and 3 rd fingers will each be used twice in succession, and of course must be pushed forward or backward with firmness to the next note.
The 4 th has one note only on each string assigned to it. The Positions. The various places for the left hand, up and down the neck, are known as the positions, and each is deter- mined by the place reached by the first finger. If the hand is so placed that the first finger is ready to press down these notes it will be termed the first position. If the first finger is upon these i it will be the second position.
The ball of the thumb must not touch the neck. As in the first position the first finger remains upon the strings as guide. The thumb also, lies opposite the first and second fingers. In this position the ball of the hand comes in con- tact with the ribs of the violin.