Today, he is considered one of the most respected US presidents, but the critical role that his religious beliefs played in his life and work is widely ignored. As one historian wrote, Eisenhower was the most religious president in the twentieth century. This book sets the record straight about common erroneous beliefs concerning President Eisenhower and his family.
It is necessary to understand the forces that shaped him so we can put his life and many achievements into perspective. Eisenhower acknowledged his dependence upon God. Faced with difficult decisions during his career as commander-in-chief of the Allied Forces and, later, president of the United States, he relied upon the biblical principles taught to him by his parents. Bergman clearly shows that it was these convictions that were crucial in making Dwight Eisenhower one of the outstanding leaders of the twentieth century.
Bio s - Jerry Bergman has taught at the college level for forty years.
Dwight D. Eisenhower | Cold War, Presidency, & Facts | inatsournodes.cf
A multi-award-winning author, his work has been translated into thirteen languages and is in over 1, college libraries in twenty-seven countries. I frequently asked her impression of someone, and found her intuition good. Women who know the same individual as a man do give a different slant. I got it into my head that I'd better listen when she talked about someone brought in close to me.
Other times she would contact the wives of such officials to praise them. Although she never sought to address a specific social issue, it is a popular fallacy that Mamie Eisenhower undertook no public initiative. Towards the end of her tenure, she committed herself to two causes. Following the President's heart attack, Mamie Eisenhower became increasingly aware of the prevalence of heart disease. She assumed both local and national chairmanship of The American Heart Association's fundraising drives to widen its scientific research and public awareness.
Although she herself was a cigarette smoker, there was not yet any scientific findings released tying smoking and heart disease. It was not an unsubstantial role that she played: the AHA president praised her years of sponsorship which proved it's "most fruitful" with a 70 percent increase in income and jump in the volunteer force to , Mamie Eisenhower , he wrote, "made possible many dramatic advances in the research….
Through many of her old friendships with spouses of retired military personnel, she also became aware of the financial difficulties they endured. She helped to raise funds and broke ground for what was then called the "Army Distaff Home," to provide affordable, secure retirement housing and health care services for Army widows who, at the time, received minimal benefits from the government.
Aided by thousands of Army wives around the world, the 16 acre facility in Washington, D. It was also in her last years in the White House that she encountered her first public criticism. Columnist Drew Pearson pointed out that she violated the Railroad Act by accepting gratis train travel to "Maine Chance," a Phoenix , Arizona spa run by her friend, the beautician Elizabeth Arden.
When she appeared unsteady because of these episodes, rumors that she was an alcoholic were printed in the 7 June issue of the tabloid National Enquirer. She was also criticized for shopping in a chain store by the National Federation of Independent Business and endured press scrutiny when she inadvertently crossed a picket line at the Bonwit Teller department store, having been incorrectly told that the dispute only involved the shoe concession.
According to the memoirs of Richard Nixon , Mamie Eisenhower also played an unwitting role in the election when she telephoned his wife Pat Nixon. Pat Nixon passed on the request to her husband.
The Nixon campaign did not request that President Eisenhower schedule campaign event appearances. Nixon subsequently lost by a razor-thin margin. The Eisenhowers retired to their Gettysburg , Pennsylvania farm which they had purchased in Post-Presidential Life:.
Mamie Eisenhower was relieved to begin a retirement with her husband in healthy condition. They traveled through Europe and enjoyed an active social life, often visiting Georgia and California in the winter months where the former president played golf. Mamie Eisenhower warily agreed to serve as a co-chairman with incumbent First Lady Jacqueline Kennedy to raise funds for a National Cultural Center in , and she accepted the Kennedys ' invitation to attend a state dinner for the Japanese Prime Minister.
During that visit, she inspected some of the historic restoration work that her successor had conducted in the mansion but expressed little enthusiasm for it. During the Kennedy Administration, Mamie Eisenhower successfully persuaded her husband to intercede with Republican Senator Everett Dirksen to approach President Kennedy on behalf of his former Chief of Staff Sherman Adams, who was suicidal as he faced federal charges of income-tax evasion. The two Republicans promised to support Kennedy in whatever legislation he wished if he would put the Adams case in the "deep freeze.
While attending the funeral of the assassinated president in , Mamie Eisenhower encouraged her husband to accept an overture by former President Harry Truman to renew their acquaintance. For many years afterwards, when she made an annual drive from Pennsylvania to Kansas , she stopped to telephone Bess Truman in Missouri. When an oral history of Truman later claimed that Eisenhower had an affair with Kay Summersby and a television dramatization of the alleged affair aired, Mamie Eisenhower expressed her confidence to friends and family of the falsehood of the claim but did not attack either the late former president or the television network.
Her husband's wartime love letters to her were subsequently published. Eisenhower 's heart condition rapidly worsened six years after he left the White House and by he was permanently hospitalized.
During this time, in conversation with incumbent First Lady and friend Lady Bird Johnson, Mamie Eisenhower expressed her fears of living alone and unprotected as a presidential widow. Johnson spoke to her husband about it, and President Johnson signed legislation that offered lifetime Secret Service protection to presidential widows. Often expressing loneliness for her late husband, Mamie Eisenhower kept herself as active as her health permitted.
She made an annual drive to visit his grave in Kansas , and to see her elderly uncle Joel Carlson in Iowa. She also spent many of her winters in Palm Desert , California.
Eisenhower: A Life
When she dedicated a hospital wing there dedicated to President Eisenhower , Mamie Eisenhower delivered another public speech. Likewise, she spoke at the first commencement of Eisenhower College in Seneca Falls, New York, an institution she strongly supported with financial gifts and heading up fundraiser events. She also lent her name to her community's institutions such as Gettysburg College and an historic preservation drive which sold old bricks from the town square as a fundraiser. Throughout her post-White House years, Mamie Eisenhower maintained a close friendship with the family of her husband's former vice president; in , when Eisenhower was spontaneously asked by a group of reporters who see viewed as a viable Republican candidate for the presidency, it was Mamie Eisenhower who interrupted to suggest Richard Nixon.
With the marriage of her grandson David to the daughter of President Richard Nixon , Mamie Eisenhower was considered a member of the First Family and frequently made overnight stays at the White House and Camp David. In , she taped a television campaign advertisement endorsing Nixon 's re-election, and recalled his loyalty to Ike. During the Watergate scandal, she remained a loyal friend to Pat Nixon , although she did not express her views on the President's ultimate decision to resign in Mamie Eisenhower felt it unpatriotic to question the authority of the White House and supported the Vietnam War policy under LBJ and Nixon , while conceding that it was an unusually difficult struggle for U.
She was adamant in her opposition to the so-termed "Women's Lib" movement or use of the term "Ms. In widowhood, Mamie Eisenhower became staunchly partisan.
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Although she warmly welcomed President and Mrs. Carter to her Gettysburg home in the summer of , she publicly supported the gubernatorial candidacy of Republican Richard Thornburg in her state. Despite a warm and long friendship with Dr. Loyal Davis and his wife Edie, the parents-in-law of Ronald Reagan , Mamie Eisenhower suggested that she intended to support the Republican presidential candidate George H.
His time in office was dominated by the Cold War. In July , he agreed to an armistice to end the fighting in Korea. He also guaranteed US protection for South Vietnam. In , Eisenhower surprised Britain and France by refusing to back them in the Suez crisis. At home, Eisenhower expanded social security provision and instigated the interstate highway system, the largest construction project in history. He was criticised for failing to publicly condemn Senator Joseph McCarthy for his anti-communist 'witchhunt'.
However, he worked behind the scenes to erode McCarthy's influence. He signed significant civil rights legislation, but appeared to dislike confronting racial issues. Eisenhower was re-elected in November During his last years in office, he hoped to improve US-Soviet relations and negotiate a nuclear test ban treaty.