Guide Yucatan Before and After the Conquest (Native American)

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Among the many 'bad guys' in the history of sacred texts, the Friar Diego de Landa has to occupy a special circle in hell. Don Francisco. Only significant account done of Yucatan in post-Conquest era. Describes geography and natural history of the peninsula, gives brief history of Mayan life. Yucatan Before and After the Conquest book. Read 24 reviews from the world's largest community for readers.

These people also used certain characters or. Yucatan Before and After the Conquest is the first English translation of this very important 's book gives us a full account of Maya. Yucatan Before and After the Conquest is the first English translation of this very important work. Landa's book gives us a full account of Maya customs, daily.

Results 1 - 30 of 41 Yucatan Before and After the Conquest. Product Information. Describes geography and natural history of the peninsula, gives brief history. LibraryThing Review. One Spaniard was killed and fifty were wounded in the ensuing battle, including Grijalva. Grijalva put into the port of Havana five months after he had left. A new expedition was organised, with a fleet of eleven ships carrying men and some horses. Maya temples were cast down and a Christian cross was put up on one of them.

Montejo remained in Spain for seven years, and eventually succeeded in acquiring the hereditary military title of adelantado. He also had with him the captured Aztec emperor Cuauhtemoc , and Cohuanacox and Tetlepanquetzal , the captive Aztec lords of Texcoco and Tlacopan. The expedition passed onwards through Kejache territory and reported that the Kejache towns were situated in easily defensible locations and were often fortified.

The town was fortified with a wooden palisade and was surrounded by a moat. Tiac was said to have been at war with the unnamed smaller town. On 15 April the expedition arrived at the Maya village of Tenciz. With local guides they headed into the hills north of Lake Izabal , where their guides abandoned them to their fate. The expedition became lost in the hills and came close to starvation before they captured a Maya boy who led them to safety.

He crossed the Dulce River to the settlement of Nito, somewhere on the Amatique Bay, [95] with about a dozen companions, and waited there for the rest of his army to regroup over the next week. The expedition made landfall somewhere near Xelha in the Maya province of Ekab , [99] in what is now Mexico's Quintana Roo state.


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Montejo garrisoned Xelha with 40 soldiers under his second-in-command, Alonso d'Avila, and posted 20 more at nearby Pole. The provisions were soon exhausted and additional food was seized from the local Maya villagers; this too was soon consumed. Many local Maya fled into the forest and Spanish raiding parties scoured the surrounding area for food, finding little.

His expedition passed through the towns of Xamanha, Mochis and Belma, none of which survives today. After this, Montejo led his men to Conil, a town in Ekab that was described as having 5, houses, where the Spanish party halted for two months. In the spring of , Montejo left Conil for the city of Chauaca , which was abandoned by its Maya inhabitants under cover of darkness.

The following morning, the inhabitants attacked the Spanish party but were defeated. The Spanish then continued to Ake, some 16 kilometres 9. After this Spanish victory, the neighbouring Maya leaders all surrendered. Montejo's party then continued to Sisia and Loche before heading back to Xelha.

The support ship eventually arrived from Santo Domingo, and Montejo used it to sail south along the coast, while he sent D'Avila over land. Montejo discovered the thriving port city of Chaktumal modern Chetumal.

The Maya at Chaktumal fed false information to the Spanish, and Montejo was unable to find d'Avila and link up with him. D'Avila returned overland to Xelha, and transferred the fledgling Spanish colony to nearby Xamanha, [] modern Playa del Carmen , which Montejo considered to be a better port.

Montejo was appointed alcalde mayor a local colonial governor of Tabasco in , and pacified that province with the aid of his son, also named Francisco de Montejo. In Montejo moved his base of operations to Campeche. The local Maya fiercely resisted the placement of the new Spanish colony and d'Avila and his men were forced to abandon Villa Real and make for Honduras in canoes. At Campeche, the Maya amassed a strong force and attacked the city; the Spanish were able to fight them off, a battle in which the elder Montejo was almost killed.

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Yucatán - HISTORY

After this battle, the younger Francisco de Montejo was despatched to the northern Cupul province, where the lord Naabon Cupul reluctantly allowed him to found the Spanish town of Ciudad Real at Chichen Itza. Montejo carved up the province amongst his soldiers and gave each of his men two to three thousand Maya in encomienda.

After six months of Spanish rule, Cupul dissatisfaction could no longer be contained and Naabon Cupul was killed during a failed attempt to kill Montejo the Younger. The death of their lord only served to inflame Cupul anger and, in mid , they laid siege to the small Spanish garrison at Chichen Itza.

Montejo the Younger abandoned Ciudad Real by night after arranging a distraction for their attackers, and he and his men fled west, where the Chel , Pech and Xiu provinces remained obedient to Spanish rule. Montejo the Younger was received in friendship by Namux Chel, the lord of the Chel province, at Dzilam. The Montejos, after reuniting at Dzikabal, founded a new Spanish town at Dzilam, although the Spanish suffered hardships there. He was accompanied by the friendly Chel lord Namux Chel, who travelled on horseback, and two of the lord's cousins, who were taken in chains.

Around this time, the news began to arrive of Francisco Pizarro 's conquests in Peru and the rich plunder that his soldiers were taking there, undermining the morale of Montejo's already disenchanted band of followers. Towards the end of or the beginning of the next year, Montejo the Elder and his son retreated from Campeche to Veracruz, taking their remaining soldiers with them. Montejo the Elder became embroiled in colonial infighting over the right to rule Honduras, a claim that put him in conflict with Pedro de Alvarado, captain general of Guatemala, who also claimed Honduras as part of his jurisdiction.

Alvarado's claim ultimately turned out successful. In Montejo the Elder's absence, first in central Mexico, and then in Honduras, Montejo the Younger acted as lieutenant governor and captain general in Tabasco.

The Native Struggle for Justice in the Spanish Empire: Mayas

His initial efforts were proving successful when Captain Lorenzo de Godoy arrived in Champoton at the command of soldiers despatched there by Montejo the Younger. Godoy and Testera were soon in conflict and the friar was forced to abandon Champoton and return to central Mexico. Godoy's attempt to subdue the Maya around Champoton was unsuccessful and the local Kowoj Maya resisted his attempts to assert Spanish dominance of the region. His diplomatic overtures to the Champoton Kowoj were successful and they submitted to Spanish rule. In early , Montejo the Younger joined his cousin in Champoton; he did not remain there long, and quickly moved his forces to Campeche.

Shortly after establishing the Spanish presence in Campeche, Montejo the Younger summoned the local Maya lords and commanded them to submit to the Spanish Crown. A number of lords submitted peacefully, including the ruler of the Xiu Maya. The lord of the Canul Maya refused to submit and Montejo the Younger sent his cousin against them; Montejo himself remained in Campeche awaiting reinforcements.

He expressed interest in the Spanish religion and witnessed a Roman Catholic mass celebrated for his benefit. Montejo the Younger next sent his cousin to Chauaca where most of the eastern lords greeted him in peace. The Cochua Maya resisted fiercely but were soon defeated by the Spanish. The Cupul Maya also rose up against the newly imposed Spanish domination, and also their opposition was quickly put down.

Montejo continued to the eastern Ekab province, reaching the east coast at Pole. Stormy weather prevented the Spanish from crossing to Cozumel, and nine Spaniards drowned in the attempted crossing. Another Spanish conquistador was killed by hostile Maya. Rumours of this setback grew in the telling and both the Cupul and Cochua provinces once again rose up against their would-be European overlords.

The Spanish hold on the eastern portion of the peninsula remained tenuous and a number of Maya polities remained independent, including Chetumal, Cochua, Cupul, Sotuta and the Tazes. On 8 November , an alliance of eastern provinces launched a coordinated uprising against the Spanish.

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A contemporary account described the slaughter of over allied Maya, as well as livestock. The rebellious eastern Maya were finally defeated in a single battle, in which twenty Spaniards and several hundred allied Maya were killed. The party was initially received in peace at the Itza capital, [] but as soon as the Spanish soldiers let their guard down, the Itza seized and bound the new arrivals.

With no word from Delgado's escort, Mirones sent two Spanish soldiers with a Maya scout to learn their fate. Bernardino Ek, the scout, escaped and returned to Mirones with the news. A number of local Maya men and women were killed by Spanish attackers, who also burned the town. The Maya governor of Oxkutzcab , Fernando Kamal, set out with Maya archers to track the warleader down; they succeeded in capturing the Itza captain and his followers, together with silverware from the looted Sakalum church and items belonging to Mirones.

The musketeer company then arrived to reinforce their sentries and charged into battle against approaching Kejache archers. Several musketeers were injured in the ensuing skirmish and, the Kejache retreated along a forest path without injury. They seized the food and retreated back along the path.

Yucatan Before and After the Conquest (Native American)

In December the main force was reinforced with soldiers, of which were Spanish and pardo and were Maya, together with labourers and muleteers. Juan de San Buenaventura's small group of Franciscans arrived in Chuntuki on 30 August , and found that the army had opened the road southwards for another seventeen leagues approximately At this point the Spanish soldiers opened fire with their muskets, and the Itza retreated across the lake with their prisoners, who included the two Franciscans. Zubiaur ordered his men to fire a volley that killed between 30 and 40 Itzas. Realising that they were hopelessly outnumbered, the Spanish retreated towards Chuntuki, abandoning their captured companions to their fate.

Again a large number of canoes gathered, and the nervous Spanish soldiers opened fire with cannons and muskets; no casualties were reported among the Itza, who retreated and raised a white flag from a safe distance. The two friars were captured and sacrificed.

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The Itza killed a total of 87 expedition members, including 50 soldiers, two Dominicans and about 35 Maya helpers. He arrived at the lake over a week later with 36 men. A waterbourne assault was launched upon Kan Ek's capital on the morning of 13 March. The defending Itza soon fled from the withering Spanish gunfire.

The city fell after a brief but bloody battle in which many Itza warriors died; the Spanish suffered only minor casualties. The Spanish bombardment caused heavy loss of life on the island; [] the surviving Itza abandoned their capital and swam across to the mainland with many dying in the water. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.